Drug Abuse in Scripture and Other extra-Biblical Writings
The Fallen Angels and the Nephilim Hybrid
An Angel called
Pharmarós ‘Drug Agent’
‘An Incantation’, ‘Spell’
‘And they [the fallen] taught charms and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made [men] acquainted with plants’
Enoch 7:1 from the Ethiopic, Trans. R H Charles 1912
The concept of the Cosmic War and the Fallen Angels is a theme reoccurring in Scripture from Genesis to Revelation, and as such is reciprocated, not only in much Apocryphal and extra-Biblical literature, but also in the Gospel by Christ Himself.
And He said unto them, “I beheld (Gk. Έθεώρουν ‘I was beholding’)
Satan fallen as lightning from heaven”
Luke 10:18 ASV+KIT Lit. Trans.
Cf. Genesis 6:1-4, Psalm 78:49, Isaiah 14:12, Hebrews 11:5, 2 Peter 2:4, Jude 1:6, Rev. 12:7-9
The extra-Biblical Book of Enoch, which deals among other things, with the origin and judgment of the fallen Angels was compiled at different times and dates from about 350-300 BC to the close of the age. This ancient text is obviously multi-authored, and, although certain passages were recognised as inspired Scripture by St. Jude in the first-century, (Cf. Jude 1:6,) the book in its entirety is not now generally held as canonical. Where however, by Apostolic example certain portions of the various books are placed in agreement with Biblical teaching, partic. from Genesis and the New Testament itself, (Jude 1:14-15 is a direct quote from 1 Enoch i. 9) many core truths are seen to remain in this ancient text, particularly, among others, in the doctrine of the Fallen Angels, hence the following reduction may be made.
Graphic: An Angel falls from Heaven, Gustave Doré Public Domain
In the ancient Ethiopic version of Enoch, which maps the original and last estate of the Fallen (the Hebrew ‘sons of God’ or, ‘gods’ at Genesis 6:1-4 (In the Greek LXX Alex. ‘Angels’) the phrase corresponding with the φαρμακεία pharmakeia or ‘drug magic’ of the Greek Enoch version, New Testament and other related Early Writings (New Testament / Septuagint / LXX Apocrypha) concerning spells, charms, drugs and magic in Scripture is:
‘[A]nd they [the fallen angels] taught charms and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, [the Old Testament כשף kashãph lit. ‘cuttings’, or magical plant ‘off-cuttings’ LXX / NT φαρμακεία pharmakeía ‘drug magic’] and made [men] acquainted with plants’.
Enoch 7:1 trans. R H Charles from the Ethiopic
Whether one sees these ‘angels’ as a Spiritual reality, or an ancient figure of natural or supernatural phenomenon, must, of course, remain with the reader.
Photo: Dried Roots of Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum). The Biblical ‘Love Apples’ (דודא Dûdã) of ancient times. (Cf. the Revised version margin at Genesis 30:14-16). This plant, as seemingly an ancient world viagra, was long known as both an aphrodisiac and aromatic in the ancient world. Cf. Canticles (Song of Solomon) 7:13.
Photo Spacedive Public domain
The Enochian literalism, partic. 7:1 must substantiate the lexic. where the Oxford Hebrew Lexicon at p.506 also maintains:
‘כשף kashãph, ‘acc. to RS prop. herbs etc. shredded into a magic brew’
again where the root (lexic.) cognate in Arabic and Syriac, is seen as meaning to ‘cut up’ or ‘cut off’, hence ‘cuttings’.† This was noted also by the erudite Hastings’ B.D. Scholars of Edwardian times. The literalism, along with the metaphoric, is further not dismissed by the editors of the academic Cambridge and Expositors Greek Testaments at Revelation 17:5 / 18:23 (the Apocalyptic Babylon).
The New Bible Dictionary p.766 (1962) also maintains the root probably means ‘to cut’ and with the accumulated evidence as such it is now generally accepted that this word must refer to the ‘cutting up’ or shredding of herbs in the preparation of narcotic philtres. Hence the Greek LXX equivalent φαρμακεία pharmakeía, is seen also to stand generally, though not always, in the LXX and Greek New Testament for a literal ‘drug enchantment’ (KJV ‘witchcrafts’ etc.)
See ‘Concordance’ for full versification and metaphorical equivalents
In the Old Testament and again the extra-Biblical Enoch the fallen ‘sons of God’, (or ‘gods’ בני־האלהים if the Hebrew takes the plural form, though again the Alexandrian text of the Greek LXX records the various άγγεοι ‘angel’) (Jubilees 5:1 ‘angels of God’) are seen as making an original descent on Mount Hermon, which means either ‘Sacred’ or ‘Curse’, ‘Destruction’ (חרמון) because it was here they swore the original ‘oath against God’ and bound themselves with mutual imprecations’. (Enoch 6:4, Cf. Isaiah 28:15-18 (Matt 4:8-10, Luke 4:5-8).
Genesis Chapter 6:1-4 = Enoch Chapter 15:1-6
The Book of Enoch, in agreement with the Old Testament (Cf Daniel 4:13) records the original fallen as ‘the Watchers’, from an Aramaic root עיר ‘îr meaning ‘to watch’ or ‘be wakeful’ (aware), the eternal angelic that ‘kept not their first estate’ and fell from ‘the high, holy, and eternal heaven’. (Genesis 6:1-4 = Enoch 15:2-6 = Jude 1:6.) As such, in taking wives of all they chose, (according to the apocryphal Book of Jubilees ii:387 ‘having overstayed an allotted time’... that etc.) the once eternal befell the Earth with a race of giants, the Néphilim hybrid, where the word נפילים néphilim itself (root נפל) means ‘to fall’ or, ‘that fall upon others’.
(Cf. Symmachus βιαιοι, Aquila οι επιπίπτοντες, 140 CE. HBD vol. iii p.512 for further etym.)
In the Greek LXX and Latin text the Hebrew נפילים néphilim translates as Γίγαντες Gigantes, (Ch. 6:4, also הגברי Gibôre KJV ‘mighty’) the primal ‘giants of old’ (or, pos. from literal Hebrew, ‘of the name’ השם). In the LXX these same ‘men of renown’ (v.4 of the EV) are cited as απ αιωνος ‘from the age’ or ‘eon’ from the original Hebrew מעולם where the appellation ‘giant’ itself would apparently not refer to physical stature alone. Cf. also Ezikiel 32:27 (Young’s Literal + Heb + LXX) with Genesis Ch. 6 verses 1-4 etc.
Scholars are however agreed that there is much uncertain in the interpretation of ‘this strange passage’. (ISBE vol. iv p.2133) and hence e.g. the more traditional teaching that the ‘sons of God’ (בני־האלהים) were the descendants of Seth who intermarried with the evil descendants of Cain. This was the view taken by the Inquisitors Kramer and Sprenger in order to further the theology of the medieval Witch Hammer though this interpretation would not seem to fully support the Apostolic traditions of 2 St. Peter 2:4, and St. Jude 1:6 (Rev. 12:7-13). A possible alignment of the two views however, from more recent lexic. and historical evidence can be made from Exodus 21:6, 22:8, Ezekiel 28:11-16, Isaiah 14: 12-23 and St John 10:33-35 for which see eBook chapter The Fallen Angels.
In the New Testament the fallen Watchers are cited as the sinful angels (2 St. Peter 2:4, and St. Jude 1:6.) subsequently bound in the the underworld prison of Tartarus (τάρταρος, 2 St. Peter 2:4 Gk) to await the final judgement of the Great White Throne. (Enoch 10:12 = Revelation 20:11-12). The Nephilim Giants, the hybrid offspring, are seen as destroyed at the time of the Great Flood and their disembodied spirits given to become demons to roam the earth and work destruction until the Last Judgement. (confer St. Matthew 12:43-45). The Jewish Haggada, an ancient historical commentary also records that the patriarch Noah, who found favour with God and was saved from the flood, also wrote a lost treatise on medicine from knowledge drawn from the antediluvian world, that is, the ‘ancient world’ of the ancients. Confer 2 St. Peter 2:4, See also column The Firmament.
In Enoch, (Book of Noah LXIX (69):6) where the angel Gâdreêl (pos. ‘Wall of God’) is seen as the Serpents emissary at the temptation of Eve, the origin of evil, from the lusts of the Watchers (6-7, 15) is seen as transferred back into the Spirit world as pre-existent with ‘that Old (primordial) Serpent called the Devil and Satan (Genesis 3:1-15 - Rev. 12:3-11, S. v.9). This, along with Enoch 69:11, fully compliments the Genesis account (the Fall of Mankind), the Theology of the New Testament (the Redemption of Mankind) and the Apocalypse (Revelation) of St. John (the Cosmic War and the Last Judgement) Revelation. 12:3-11. (Cf. Charles Intro. civ-cv below).
Enoch records that the initial Watchers themselves, as the Host of Azâzâl, numbered two hundred in all, that fell in the days of Jarad (meaning ‘descent’). As such they each had names and corresponding functions, though much of this ancient nomenclature or ‘system of naming’ is obscure if not lost; though not all:
One Angel leader was Semjâzâ (meaning uncertain, pos. ‘my name has seen’). Semjâzâ (or Sêmîazâz) according to the Ethiopic text ‘taught enchantments and root-cuttings’ (Enoch 7:3). Another Angel was named Armârôs, who taught the resolving of enchantments (Enoch 7:1). In the Greek fragments called Φαρμαρός Pharmarós who taught φαρμακίας pharmakías ‘drug magic’ (Enoch 8:3 Greek Gs see below). Consequentially in the ancient world and Scripture, drug abuse and the cognate φαρμακεία pharmakeía is inextricably linked with the occult, the fallen angels and the dark arts.
The Angelic Nomenclature
(Errata: R H. Charles = 1855 - 1931)
For Armârôs = Pharmarós (sometimes Abaros) see also A Dictionary of Angels Gustave Davidson p.55 (Free Press 1967). For the full listed nomenclature see Charles p.17.
See Concordance for full versification
Confer the Greek text of the Gizeh MSS (8:3)* (Charles p.280 below) with page Babylon
Mini Book Reader for
Book of Enoch
See The Apocryphal Old Testament ‘Intro.’ (1 Enoch) H.F.D.Sparks (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1984) for updates since the time of Charles.
See also Bible Search
For a further discussion as to the possible origins and judgment of the fallen Angels and the subsequent Nephilim hybrid, with full text and other various concepts and explanations...
FREE eBOOK Drug Abuse in Scripture.
An interesting article Bloodlines of the Nephilim - A Biblical Study can be found at
8 Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honorable, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.
Philippians 4:8 (American Standard Version (1901)
Biblical Source Index
† A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, William Gesenius, Trans. Edward Robinson, Eds. Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, Charles A. Briggs. Clarendon Press: Oxford. Second Printing 1975. p.506. (ii) The Book of Enoch Gizeh Edition R. H. Charles Oxford 1912. (iii) International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia ISBE vol. iv p.2133 (iv) The Apocryphal Old Testament Ed. H.F.D. Sparks, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1984.
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